Saturday, March 14, 2020
Propositions in Debate Definition and Examples In an argument or debate, a proposition is a statement that affirms or denies something. As explained below, a proposition may function as a premise or a conclusion in a syllogism or enthymeme. In formal debates, a proposition may also be called a topic, motion, or resolution. EtymologyFrom the Latin, to set forth Examples and Observations An argument is any group of propositions where one proposition is claimed to follow from the others, and where the others are treated as furnishing grounds or support for the truth of the one. An argument is not a mere collection of propositions, but a group with a particular, rather formal, structure. . . . The conclusion of an argument is the one proposition that is arrived at and affirmed on the basis of the other propositions of the argument. The premises of an argument are the other propositions which are assumed or otherwise accepted as providing support or justification for accepting the one proposition which is the conclusion. Thus, in the three propositions that follow in the universal deductive categorical syllogism, the first two are premises and the third the conclusion: All men are mortal.Ã¢â¬â¹Socrates is a man.Socrates is mortal. . . . Premises and conclusions require each other. A proposition standing alone is neither a premise nor a conclusion. (Ruggero J. Aldisert, Logic in Forensic Science. Forensic Science and Law, ed. by Cyril H. Wecht and John T. Rago. Taylor Francis, 2006) Effective Argumentative Essays The first step in arguing successfully is to state your position clearly. This means that a good thesis is crucial to your essay. For argumentative or persuasive essays, the thesis is sometimes called a major proposition, or a claim. Through your major proposition, you take a definite position in a debate, and by taking a strong position, you give your essay its argumentative edge. Your readers must know what your position is and must see that you have supported your main idea with convincing minor points. (Gilbert H. Muller and Harvey S. Wiener, The Short Prose Reader, 12th ed. McGraw-Hill, 2009) Propositions in Debates Debate is the process of presenting arguments for or against a proposition. Propositions for which people argue are controversial and have one or more individuals presenting the case for the proposition while others present the case against it. Every debater is an advocate; the purpose of each speaker is to gain the belief of the audience for his side. Argument is the core of the debate speech- the superior debater must be superior in the use of argument. The chief means of persuasion in debate is the logical mode. (Robert B. Huber and Alfred Snider, Influencing Through Argument, rev. ed. International Debate Education Association, 2006) Clarifying Propositions [It often requires] some work to extract a clear representation of an argument from any given prose passage. First of all, it is possible to express a proposition using any kind of grammatical construction. Interrogative, optative, or exclamatory sentences, for example, can, with appropriate contextual stage setting, be used to express propositions. In the interests of clarity, therefore, it will often be helpful to paraphrase an authors words, in expressing a premise or conclusion, into the form of a declarative sentence that transparently expresses a proposition. Second, not every proposition expressed in an argumentative prose passage occurs within that passage as either a premise or a conclusion, or as (a proper) part of a premise or conclusion. Well refer to these propositions, which are neither identical with nor embedded in any premise or conclusion, and to the sentences by which they are expressed, as noise. A noisy proposition makes a claim that is extraneous to the content of the argument in question. (Mark Vorobej, A Theory of Argument. Cambridge University Press, 2006) Pronunciation: PROP-eh-ZISH-en
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
A city that died (explaining why it grew and flourished and why ltimately it failed to survive) - Essay Example All these factors led to the fast growth of Buffalo city to its peak in the 1950s. Changes in transportation dynamics were the first shock that jolted the development of Buffalo. Road and rail transport of goods became a more viable means of transporting goods over water transportation on which Buffalo initially flourished. Compounding this was the opening of St. Lawrence Seaway that enabled bypassing Buffalo altogether in the transportation of goods. Improvements to electricity transmission removed the advantage that Buffalo held in the energy requirements of industry. Inclement weather was always a draw back for Buffalo and industries moved away to warmer climes, when Buffalo no longer offered advantages. The final nails in its coffin were a combination of other factors. Actions of the State and local administration only made Buffalo unattractive. The loss of industrial activity was hastened Ã¢â¬Å"high taxes, burdensome regulations, and pro-union lawsÃ¢â¬ (Glaezar, 2007). The high property taxes coupled with the failure of the city administration to provide the safety and good schools were reasons for exodus of city residents. Racial violence, crime and lack of leadership at a time of crisis plunged Buffalo into its decline to virtual death (Glaezar, 2007). The decline of city and its gradual death arises from two reasons. The first reason is the loss of industrial activity and the jobs that it provides. The second reason is when there is failure of the city administration to make the city socially attractive (Bradbury, Downs & Small). When businesses no longer find it profitable to continue activity in a city, which in the case of Buffalo was compounded by high taxes, strict regulations and pro-union laws, they move away to other more suitable locations, leading to loss of jobs. High property taxes and the lack of appropriate social amenities cause the more affluent
Monday, February 10, 2020
AFGHANISTAN - Essay Example The male members of AfghanistanÃ¢â¬â¢s population keep weapons with them as a sign of their personal honor. This paper contains a description of people and culture of Afghanistan. Afghanistan is an Islamic state and is landlocked which means that it has no sea routes. It can be considered as present in the center of Asia. The citizens of Afghanistan are called Afghans or Afghanis (Dupree 1977). The name of the state Afghanistan is given to it because it is the land of Afghans as they are the nationals of the country. The people of Afghanistan speak Pushto and Persian along with many local dialects. Afghanistan is a rich state in terms of culture and traditions (Jawad 1992). The people of Afghanistan consider themselves strongly associated to their culture, religion, identity and freedom (Toynbee 1961). Afghans live in form of Clans and are deeply rooted in the clan system. They felt themselves associated to other clan members and are always ready to secure their clan members from any attack or inconvenience from any side (Jawad 1992). The country has gone through many hard conditions of warfare and foreign invasion due to which, the country along with its people and culture has suffered immensely (Rall 2002). The country is mostly mountainous with green valleys in between. There are also plains and deserts in Afghanistan. Due to warfare in Afghanistan, many Afghans moved away from Afghanistan to the neighboring states such as Pakistan and Iran (Rall 2002). The people of Afghanistan are divided into many ethnicities or it can be said that Afghanistan is a country of people with mixed ethnicities (Toynbee 1961). It has a multiethnic culture but as far as religion is concerned, the dominant religion is Islam. The ethnic groups in Afghanistan are Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks, Turkmen, Baluch, Nuristani, Pashai, Aimak and Arabs (Dupree 1977). The Afghani people are identified according to their ethnicity by means of their being resided at different
Thursday, January 30, 2020
House Hold Chores Essay Children should not have to work or help with household tasks; their only responsibility should be to study Helping family with household tasks causes no harm to either adult members or children. On the other hand, housework enables children to learn a number of important life skills and to avoid social evils. After school time, children are able to assist their parents with simple household routines such as tidying their own rooms, cooking simple dishes amp;washing clothes. Such activities teach children essential knowledge and practical experience for their life. During a holiday cooking competition, the winners are the children who are used to doing household tasks in their families. Another example is involvement in daily chores providing children with numerous lessons learnt: time management, awareness of needs, limitations, responsibilities, encouragement them to recognize dos and donÃ¢â¬â¢ts. Requesting/ instructing a child to clean his or her dirty shoes after coming from school or to clear up the table after meal doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean demand him or her to do a hard business, but instead these need to be done. It is obvious that children attributed their knowledge and fundamental skills to housework aiding and implementing. Furthermore, social evils are completely avoidable by assigning housework to children in their free time. Idle children are an underlying cause of easily engaging in harmful activities such as: online games, violent games, fighting and even gambling without any consideration. In a family, simple responsibility allocations do not only maintain them occupied but also raise their consciousness. For instances, children spend most of their spare time taking care of flowers around their house leaving them no opportunities to involve in internet games instead educate them to appreciate and protect nature. The more homework assignments to children, the more knowledge they gain and the less social evils to be addressed. In conclusion, studying is necessary during childhood but participations in household tasks are not bad ideas. Parents give children household chore means giving them valuable chances to experience and protecting them from evils.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
The Two Protagonists of Antigone In the classic model of dramatic structure, two characters move the action of the play from introduction to climax to resolution with their conflict. One of these characters is the protagonist; the other is the antagonist. The protagonist is generally regarded as the "good guy," and the antagonist is the "bad guy." In Sophocles' play Antigone, the lines between protagonist and antagonist are blurred. In the Greek tradition, the title character is the protagonist, but in this play, the supposed antagonist Creon also displays characteristics of the protagonist. Webster's Dictionary defines protagonist as "one who takes the leading part in a drama; hence, one who takes lead in some great scene, enterprise, conflict, or the like." At a cursory glance, Antigone seems to best fit this description. Her actions and the following consequences certainly form the plot of the play. She first decides to bury her dead brother in violation of Creon's edict. When soldiers of Thebes unbury the body, she returns to bury it a second time. She is caught in the act and brought before Creon, who sentences her to die. She commits suicide in prison as a final attempt to thwart Creon's plans. ontigone's refusal to leave her brother's body unburied even after she has buried it once reveals her stubborn streak, a common trait among protagonists. The fact that Creon is on his way to release her from jail when her dead body is discovered is yet another example of stubbornness. She will not give in to adversity or strife under any circumstances, which is both admirabl e and, in the case of Antigone, fatal. Creon is portrayed as a strict leader who believes in adherence to his laws over those of the gods. He is not... ...he plot, and Creon directs the consequences. Antigone has conflict with Creon the antagonist, and Creon has conflict with Antigone the antagonist. Antigone dies a tragic death because of her flaws, and Creon realizes his mistakes and suffers greatly because of his flaws. Both Creon and Antigone are protagonists. They are both main characters who are essential to the plot, and they both maintain the traditional role. Sophocles may not have intended audiences to see both characters as protagonists, but that is the logical conclusion. Now, if one were to ask for the real antagonist to come forward, one would most likely realize that the real antagonists were forward already. Works Cited: Sophocles. Antigone. Trans. Robert Fagles. Literature and the Writing Process. Elizabeth McMahan, Susan X. Day, and Robert Funk. 6th. ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice, 2002.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
The American Indian Movement existed more than 500 year ago without a name and was formalized as the American Indian Movement (AIM) on 1968, July 28th at Minnesota in Minneapolis. It grew from policy making movement to making programs and projects from its initial task as a movement that was meant to serve many Indian communities.Its success cannot be disputed and is attributed to the spiritual and elderly guidance in its operations. It was initially meant to renew the Indian religious practices and was further against the ruinous policies that existed in the America.It led protests that advocated for the indigenous American interests, implemented employment programs for the Native Americans in rural reserves and cities and advocated for cultural renewal in and outside America as well..Among those who co-founded it in 1968 included NeeGawNwayWeeDun, Herb Powless, Dennis Banks, Eddie Benton Banai, Leonard Peltier, Clyde Bellecourt, and Russell Means among others.The movement used tact ics that would publicize its needs; it further used the media and American press. It used forced seizure, peaceful sit- in and forceful takeovers. The AIM take-over and the occupations includes the:1.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In 1973, the wounded knee incident ( Pine ridge reservation)2.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In 1973, the Custer countyÃ courthouse3.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In 1972, the bureau of Indian affairs that was located in Washington DC.The Pine Ridge incident of Wounded Knee was a widely assimilated idea because it demanded the reinstatement of about 300 treaties between the federal government and the Native American that had been broken.Ã This led to trials of several IAM members who were eventually acquitted. The AIM had held 11 hostages that resulted to a 71 days stand off between the federal agents and the Aim. The Wounded Knee, a tiny village was the site of the 1890 last great massacre of the Native Americans.The taking over of Indian affairs headquarters bureau in 1972 was supported by many Americans because the government had created a tribal council in 1934 that was against the development of the Native Americans.A gun battle between the FBI and the IAM members in 1975, July26th, which resulted to the killing of two FBI agents and Joseph Stuntz, this eventually led to conviction of one of the leader of AIM, Leonard Peltier, for the murder of the FBI agent.This conviction has been opposed by many human right activists in the world, a court of appeal judge, Gerald Heaney in his ruling said that though the Natives were guilty of the murder government had overreacted resulting to fatal shooting. This showed that the movement was a widely assimilated idea.The mid 1980s conflict in Nicaragua between the Sandinista government and the Miskito Indian where by these Indian opposed their relocation upon being supported by the AIM leads, more specifically Russell Means. This movement at that time was seen as a minority movement since even the white who supporte d it was against their opposition of relocation.AIM has been advocating for the for improved living conditions for the of the native Americans while founding institutions meant to serve their specific needs, some of these institutions includeÃ Heart of the Earth School and American Indian Opportunities and Organizations among others.REFERENCESA Brief History of AIM, retrieved on 17th, October, 2007, available at www.aimovement.org/ggc/history.htmlAIM Grand Governing Council, retrieved on 17th, October, 2007, available at www.aimovement.org/ggc/index.htmlAmerican Indian Movement Ã¢â¬â AIM, retrieved on 17th, October, 2007, available at www.aimovement.org/Kenneth S. Stern (1994) Loud Hawk: The United States Versus the American Indian Movement, Net Library publishers, US
Monday, January 6, 2020
SHANGHAI GIRLS, BY LISA SEE BOOK REVIEW I. INTRODUCTION A. Review Lisa See is an American writer and novelist born in 1955 in Paris, and grew up in the Chinatown section of Los Angeles. Her great-grandfather left his village in China to immigrate in Los Angeles at the beginning of the last century. Although she is only 1/8 Chinese, she spent he childhood in the Chinatown of Los Angeles, and her familial background has given her roots in Chinese culture and has had a great impact on her life and work. See is the author of the critically acclaimed international bestseller, Snow Flower and the Secret Fan; Peony in Love; Flower Net (an Edgar Award nominee); The Interior; and Dragon Bones, as well as the critically acclaimed memoir OnÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The book focuses on Chinese expats in the United States during the 2nd World War (although Lisa See does not develop this side of war). She tells us about foreigners, racism: the view from the Lo fan (Americans.) but also those Chinese who do not adapt to the American life and are designated as retarded by their own children born on the American soil. Although not a political or historical book, Shanghai Girls exposes some of the intricate and complex political and social dynamics of some of the most turbulent times in world history. Shanghai Girls takes place between 1937 and 1957. It started in Shanghai, when Ã¢â¬Å"Shanghai is the Paris of Asia, a city of great wealth and glamour, the home of millionaires and beggars, gangsters and gamblers, patriots and revolutionaries, artists and warlordsÃ¢â¬ (Shanghai Girls, L. See, 2009). 1937 to 1957 is a time of rapid change for China and for those of Chinese descent living in the USA. In 1937, the Japanese invaded China, temporarily halting a civil war that had begun in 1927 and didnt end until the founding of The Peoples Republic of China in 1950. During this period, many Chinese fled to the United States where they were met with draconian immigration procedures, hostility and discrimination in their neighborhoods, and the suspicion of being Communist spies. Moreover, in Shanghai Girls, Pearl and May are incarceratedShow MoreRelatedShanghai Girls - Book Review2407 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesSHANGHAI GIRLS, BY LISA SEE BOOK REVIEW I. INTRODUCTION A. Review Lisa See is an American writer and novelist born in 1955 in Paris, and grew up in the Chinatown section of Los Angeles. Her great-grandfather left his village in China to immigrate in Los Angeles at the beginning of the last century. 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